Chronic Kidney DiseaseChronic renal failure is a slowly worsening loss of the ability of the kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes.Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are unspecific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite. Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result of screening of people known to be at risk of kidney problems, such as those with high blood pressure or diabetes and those with a blood relative with chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease may also be identified when it leads to one of its recognized complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia or pericarditis.Chronic kidney disease is identified by a blood test for creatinine. Higher levels of creatinine indicate a falling glomerular filtration rate (rate at which the kidneys filter blood) read more [...]
(Gibson D. Miller)
Fear is probably the most prolific and predominant human emotion. That this is so is evident from a study of history in the folk lore, myth, and human experience down the ages.
Fear is an underlying, motive in religion, in politics, in social customs and behaviour, stemming from man's determined desire for survival.
Fear, the sensation, in its various forms and degrees, in the psychological component of response to threat. Any kind of threat or menace calls forth an immediate response on the part of the individual thus put at risk. The threat may be to the person, endangering life or limb; it may be threat to the pocket, presaging financial loss or ruin;it may be a threat to prestige, involving damage to reputation or social disgrace.
Faced by immediate threat the primitive reaction is a desire to run away, to escape, to take refuge in flight. An alternative, when escape is not feasible, is to resist, to fight, to take counter action. Perhaps neither course may be possible, but in any case the one threatened cannot but react to the situation. The first response will almost certainly be one of fear, which may give place later to anger. The threat may be read more [...]
Genital warts also known as Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts, anal wart or anogenital wart. G.W. is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). It is spread through direct skin-to-skin contact during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner. Genital warts are the most easily recognized sign of genital HPV infection. Genital warts may be small, flat, flesh-colored bumps or tiny, cauliflower-like bumps. In men, genital warts can grow on the penis, near the anus, or between the penis and the scrotum. In women, genital warts may grow on the vulva and perineal area, in the vagina and on the cervix. Genital warts vary in size and may even be so small that you can’t see them. They can lead to cancer of the cervix in women or cancer of the penis in men.ETIOLOGYCausative organism- Human papilloma virus.Transmission- sexually transmitted.Common in- sexually promiscuous young adults, read more [...]
Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis, is a renal disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys. It may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood resp. protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute renal failure, or chronic renal failure. They are categorised into several different pathological patterns, which are broadly grouped into non-proliferative or proliferative types. Diagnosing the pattern of GN is important because the outcome and treatment differs in different types. Primary causes are ones which are intrinsic to the kidney, whilst secondary causes are associated with certain infections (bacterial, viral or parasitic pathogens), drugs, systemic disorders, etc.
Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is active inflammation in the glomeruli. Each kidney is composed of about 1 million microscopic filtering "screens" known as glomeruli that selectively remove uremic waste products. The inflammatory process usually begins with an infection or injury (e.g., burn, trauma), then the protective immune system fights off the infection, scar tissue forms, and the process is complete.
There read more [...]
Kidney stones, also called renal calculi, are solid concretions (crystal aggregations) of dissolved minerals in urine; calculi typically form inside the kidneys or bladder. The terms nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis refer to the presence of calculi in the kidneys and urinary tract, respectively.
Renal stone or calculus or lithiasis is one of the most common diseases of the urinary tract. It occurs more frequently in men than in women and in whites than in blacks. It is rare in children. It shows a familial predisposition.
Urinary calculus is a stone-like body composed of urinary salts bound together by a colloid matrix of organic materials. It consists of a nucleus around which concentric layers of urinary salts are deposited.
Renal calculi can vary in size from as small as grains of sand to as large as a golf ball.
Most calculi originate within the kidney and proceed distally, creating various degrees of urinary obstruction as they become lodged in narrow areas, including the ureteropelvic junction, pelvic brim, and ureterovesical junction. Location and quality of pain are related to position of the stone within the urinary tract. Severity of pain is related to the degree read more [...]
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a cystic genetic disorder of the kidneys.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys. The kidneys are two organs, each about the size of a fist, located in the upper part of a person’s abdomen, toward the back. The kidneys filter wastes and extra fluid from the blood to form urine. They also regulate amounts of certain vital substances in the body. When cysts form in the kidneys, they are filled with fluid. PKD cysts can profoundly enlarge the kidneys while replacing much of the normal structure, resulting in reduced kidney function and leading to kidney failure.
When PKD causes kidneys to fail—which usually happens after many years—the patient requires dialysis or kidney transplantation. About one-half of people with the most common type of PKD progress to kidney failure, also called end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
PKD can also cause cysts in the liver and problems in other organs, such as blood vessels in the brain and heart. The number of cysts as well as the complications they cause help doctors distinguish PKD read more [...]
Bright’s disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases that would be described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis. The term is no longer used, as diseases are now classified according to their more fully understood etiologies. 
It is typically denoted by the presence of serum albumin (blood plasma) in the urine, and frequently accompanied by edema (tissue particulate).
Symptoms of Bright’s disease
These associated symptoms in connection with kidney disease were first described in 1827 by noted English physician Richard Bright. Since that time, it has been established that the symptoms, instead of being, as was formerly supposed, the result of one form of disease of the kidneys, may be dependent on various morbid conditions of those organs. Thus, the term Bright’s disease, which is retained in medical nomenclature in honor of Dr. Bright, must be understood as having a strictly historical application.
The symptoms are usually of a severe nature. Back pain, vomiting and fever commonly signal an attack. Edema, varying in degree from slight puffiness of the face to an accumulation of fluid sufficient to distend the whole body, and read more [...]
Albuminuria is a pathological condition where albumin is present in the urine. It is a type of proteinuria.
The amount of protein being lost in the urine can be quantified by collecting the urine for 24 hours, measuring a sample of the pooled urine, and extrapolating to the volume collected.
Causes of Albuminuria
The kidneys normally filter out large molecules from the urine, so albuminuria can be an indicator of damage to the kidneys. It can also occur in patients with long-standing diabetes especially type 1 diabetes.
Causes of albuminuria can be discriminated between by the amount of protein excreted.
The nephrotic syndrome usually results in the excretion of about 3.0 to 3.5 grams per 24 hours.
Nephritic syndrome results in far less albuminuria.
Microalbuminuria (less than 300mg) can be a forerunner of diabetic nephropathy.
Homeopathy Treatment for Albuminuria
Keywords: homeopathy, homeopathic, treatment, cure, remedy, remedies, medicine
Homeopathy treats the person as a whole. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. The homeopathic medicines are selected read more [...]
A Bartholin’s cyst is formed when a Bartholin’s gland is blocked, causing a fluid-filled cyst to develop. A Bartholin’s cyst is not an infection, although it can be caused by an infection, inflammation, or physical blockage (mucus or other impediment) to the Bartholin’s ducts (tubes which lead from the glands to the vulva). If infection sets in, the result is a Bartholin’s abscess. If the infection is severe or repeated a surgical procedure known as marsupialization may be required to stop further recurrences.
Bartholin’s cysts are most common in women aged 20-29, especially those who have never been pregnant or have only been pregnant very few times.
A Bartholin’s cyst can grow from the size of a pea to the size of an egg. Cysts are not sexually transmitted, though sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis or other bacterial infections can cause the cysts to become infected and become abscesses.
Treating a Bartholin’s cyst
The treatment can depend on one or more of these factors: the size of the cyst; how painful it is; if it is infected; and, patient’s age. In some cases, a small cyst can simply be observed over time to see if it grows. In other read more [...]
Ketonuria is a medical condition in which ketone bodies are present in the urine.
It is seen in conditions in which the body produces excess ketones as an alternative source of energy. It is seen during starvation or more commonly in type I diabetes mellitus. Production of ketone bodies is a normal response to a shortage of glucose, meant to provide an alternate source of fuel from fatty acids. For instance, after 24 hours of fasting the blood will have increased levels of ketone bodies (called ketonemia or ketosis), but all of it will be used by the muscles and very little will remain to be excreted in urine.
Ketones are metabolic end-products of fatty acid metabolism. In healthy individuals, ketones are formed in the liver and are completely metabolized so that only negligible amounts appear in the urine. However, when carbohydrates are unavailable or unable to be used as an energy source, fat becomes the predominant body fuel instead of carbohydrates and excessive amounts of ketones are formed as a metabolic byproduct. Higher levels of ketones in the urine indicate that the body is using fat as the major source of energy.
Ketone bodies that commonly appear in read more [...]