A chronic systemic disease characterised by inflammatory changes in joints & related structures that results in crippling deformities. Diseases primarily affecting the synovium & adjacent tissues.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks the joints producing a inflammatory synovitis that often progresses to destruction of the articular cartilage and ankylosis of the joints. Rheumatoid arthritis can also produce diffuse inflammation in the lungs, pericardium, pleura, and sclera, and also nodular lesions, most common in subcutaneous tissue under the skin. Although the cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, autoimmunity plays a pivotal role in its chronicity and progression.
Cause of Rheumatoid Arthritis:
– Exact cause is not known.
– Evidence points to autoimmune etiology.
– Genetic predisposition common.
– Precipitating factors:
• Physical or emotional stress.
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Arteriosclerosis refers to a hardening of medium and large arteries. The most common form of arteriosclerosis is atherosclerosis.
The following terms are similar, yet distinct, in both spelling and meaning, and can be easily confused: arteriosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis is a general term describing any hardening (and loss of elasticity) of medium or large arteries (from the Greek Arterio, meaning artery, and sclerosis, meaning hardening), arteriolosclerosis is any hardening (and loss of elasticity) of arterioles (small arteries), atherosclerosis is a hardening of an artery specifically due to an atheromatous plaque. Therefore, atherosclerosis is a form of arteriosclerosis.
Types of Arteriosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is the most common form of arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is characterized by a thickening of the intima with plaques that can contain lipid-laden macrophages (“foam cells”). The plaques contain free lipid (cholesterol, etc.) and are prone to calcification and ulceration.
Arteriosclerosis obliterans is typically seen in medium and large arteries of the lower extremity. Characterized by fibrosis of read more [...]
Agranulocytosis is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia particularly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood. The meaning of the term can be worked out from the etymology with the prefix ‘a’ denoting a reduction in the number of granulocytes in the blood stream .
Concentrations of granulocytes (a class that includes neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils) can often drop to below 500 cells/mm³ of blood), less than a sixth of the reference value of 3-10 x 103 cells/mm³.
Signs and symptoms of Agranulocytosis
Agranulocytosis may be asymptomatic, but may clinically present with sudden fever, rigors and sore throat. Infection of any organ may be rapidly progressive (e.g. pneumonia, urinary tract infection). Septicemia may also progress rapidly.
A large number of drugs have been associated with agranulocytosis, including antiepileptics, antithyroid drugs (carbimazole and methimazole), metamizole, antibiotics (penicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole), cytotoxic drugs, gold, NSAIDs (indomethacin, naproxen, phenylbutazone), the antidepressant mirtazapine, and some antipsychotics (the atypical antipsychotic clozapine). read more [...]
Chronic, inflammatory, systemic disease which may cause joint or connective tissue damage & visceral lesions throughout the body characterised by fever, rash, hepato-spleenomegaly & arthritis in children.
It is a persistent inflammatory arthritis (> 6 weeks) that begins before age 16 for which no specific cause can be found.
ETIOLOGY of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Exact cause is unknown.
• Evidence points to autoimmune aetiology.
• Associated with physical or emotional stress.
• Age: Under 16 years of age.
• Sex: Common in girls.
CLINICAL FEATURES of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Onset: acute or insidious.
• Swelling & pain in joints.
• Poor appetite.
• Loss of weight.
• Child refuses to walk without being able to explain why.
• Fever: remittent.
• Rash on trunk, limbs as patches of erythema.
• Affected joints hot, tender & swollen.
• Effusion of joint.
• Limitation of joint movement.
INVESTIGATIONS for Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Hb%: low.
• TLC: 20,000-50,000/cu.mm.
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Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In other words, the body attacks its own cells. Autoimmune diseases are a major cause of immune-mediated diseases, and are commonly referred to as Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases (AIID).
Nearly 79% of autoimmune disease patients in the USA are women. Also they tend to appear during or shortly after puberty. It is not known why this is the case, although hormone levels have been shown to affect the severity of some autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Other causes may include the presence of fetal cells in the maternal bloodstream. 
It is possible to classify autoimmune diseases by corresponding type of hypersensitivity: type II, type III, or type IV. (No type of autoimmune disease mimics type I hypersensitivity.)
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS)
Autoimmune read more [...]
Lactose intolerance is the inability to metabolize lactose, a sugar found in milk and other dairy products, because the required enzyme lactase is absent in the intestinal system or its availability is lowered. Some people also mention pasteurized dairy products as a cause (raw milk contains small amounts of lactase). It is estimated that 75% of adults show some decrease in lactase activity during adulthood worldwide. The frequency of decreased lactase activity ranges from nearly 5% in northern Europe to more than 90% in some Asian and African countries (
Disaccharides cannot be absorbed through the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream, so in the absence of lactase, lactose present in ingested dairy products remains uncleaved and passes intact into the colon. The operons of enteric bacteria quickly switch over to lactose metabolism, and the resultant in vivo fermentation produces copious amounts of gas (a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane). This, in turn, may cause a range of abdominal symptoms, including stomach cramps, bloating, and flatulence. In addition, as with other unabsorbed sugars (such as sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol), the presence read more [...]
An aneurysm (or aneurism) is a localized, blood-filled dilation (balloon-like bulge) of a blood vessel caused by disease or weakening of the vessel wall. Aneurysms most commonly occur in arteries at the base of the brain (the circle of Willis) and in the aorta (the main artery coming out of the heart, a so-called aortic aneurysm). As the size of an aneurysm increases, there is an increased risk of rupture, which can result in severe hemorrhage or other complications including sudden death.
Diagnosis for Aneurysm
Diagnosis of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is commonly made by finding signs of subarachnoid hemorrhage on a CT scan (Computerized Tomography, sometimes called a CAT scan). The CT scan is a computerized test that rapidly X-rays the body in cross-sections, or slices, as the body is moved through a large, circular machine. If the CT scan is negative but a ruptured aneurysm is still suspected, a lumbar puncture is performed to detect blood in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tCTA) is an alternative to the traditional method and can be performed without the need for arterial catheterization. This test combines a regular CT scan with a contrast dye injected into a vein. Once the read more [...]
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the condition of having a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) of no known cause (idiopathic). As most causes appear to be related to antibodies against platelets, it is also known as immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Although most cases are asymptomatic, very low platelet counts can lead to a bleeding diathesis and purpura.
The incidence of ITP is 50–100 new cases per million per year, with children accounting for half of that amount.
More than 70% of the cases in children end up in remission within 6 months whether treated or not. Moreover, a third of the remaining chronic cases remitted during the follow-up observation, and another third ended up with only mild thrombocytopenia (>50,000 platelets per μL). ITP is usually chronic in adults and the probability of durable remission is 20–40%. The male:female ratio in the adult group is 1:1.2–1.7 (for children it is 1:1) and the median age of adults at the diagnosis is 56–60.
Signs and symptoms of Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Usually, ITP patients suffer from bruising; petechiae, nosebleeds and bleeding gums may occur if the read more [...]
Pica is a medical disorder characterized by an appetite for largely non-nutritive substances (e.g., coal, soil, feces, chalk, paper, etc.) or an abnormal appetite for some things that may be considered foods, such as food ingredients (e.g., flour, raw potato, starch, ice cubes). In order for these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month, at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate. The condition’s name comes from the Latin word for the magpie, a bird which is reputed to eat almost anything. Pica is seen in all ages, particularly in pregnant women and small children, especially among children who are developmentally disabled, where it is the most common eating disorder.
Pica in children, while common, can be dangerous. Children eating painted plaster containing lead may suffer brain damage from lead poisoning. There is a similar risk from eating dirt near roads that existed prior to the phaseout of tetra-ethyl lead in gasoline or prior to the cessation of the use of contaminated oil (either used, or containing toxic PCBs or dioxin) to settle dust. In addition to poisoning, there is also a much greater read more [...]
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus, pronounced /s??st?m?k ?lu?p?s ??r??θim??to?s?s/) is a chronic autoimmune disease that can be fatal, though with recent medical advances, fatalities are becoming increasingly rare. As with other autoimmune diseases, the immune system attacks the body’s cells and tissue, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. SLE can affect any part of the body, but most often harms the heart, joints, skin, lungs, blood vessels, liver, kidneys, and nervous system. The course of the disease is unpredictable, with periods of illness (called flares) alternating with remissions. Lupus can occur at any age, and is most common in women, particularly of non-European descent. Lupus is treatable symptomatically, mainly with corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, though there is currently no cure. Survival in patients with SLE in the United States, Canada, and Europe is approximately 95% at 5 years, 90% at 10 years, and 78% at 20 years.
Classification of Systemic lupus erythematosus
Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease. Clinically, it can affect multiple organ systems, including the heart, skin, joints, kidneys, and nervous system. There are several read more [...]