Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gall bladder.
Causes and pathology of Cholecystitis
Cholecystitis is often caused by cholelithiasis (the presence of choleliths, or gallstones, in the gallbladder), with choleliths most commonly blocking the cystic duct directly. This leads to inspissation of bile, bile stasis, and secondary infection by gut organisms, predominantly E coli and Bacteroides species.
The gallbladder’s wall becomes inflamed. Extreme cases may result in necrosis and rupture. Inflammation often spreads to its outer covering, thus irritating surrounding structures such as the diaphragm and bowel.
Less commonly, in debilitated and trauma patients, the gallbladder may become inflamed and infected in the absence of cholelithiasis, and is known as acute acalculous cholecystitis.
Stones in the gallbladder may not cause obstruction and the accompanying acute attack. The patient might develop a chronic, low-level inflammation which leads to a chronic cholecystitis, where the gallbladder is fibrotic and calcified.
Symptoms of Cholecystitis
Cholecystitis usually presents as a pain in the right upper quadrant. This is usually a constant, severe pain. The pain read more [...]
In medicine, gallstones (choleliths) are crystalline bodies formed within the body by accretion or concretion of normal or abnormal bile component.
Gallstones can occur anywhere within the biliary tree, including the gallbladder and the common bile duct. Obstruction of the common bile duct is choledocholithiasis; obstruction of the biliary tree can cause jaundice; obstruction of the outlet of the pancreatic exocrine system can cause pancreatitis. Cholelithiasis is the presence of stones in the gallbladder—chole- means “bile”, lithia means “stone”, and -sis means “process”.
The characteristics of gallstones are various. Independent of appearance, however, gallstones from animals are valuable on the market.
Characteristics of Gallstone
A gallstone’s size varies and may be as small as a sand grain or as large as a golf ball. The gallbladder may develop a single, often large, stone or many smaller ones. They may occur in any part of the biliary system.
Gallstones have different appearance, depending on their contents. On the basis of their contents, gallstones can be subdivided into the two following types:
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Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrous scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules (lumps that occur as a result of a process in which damaged tissue is regenerated), leading to progressive loss of liver function. Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcoholism and hepatitis C, but has many other possible causes.
Ascites (fluid retention in the abdominal cavity) is the most common complication of cirrhosis and is associated with a poor quality of life, increased risk of infection, and a poor long-term outcome. Other potentially life-threatening complications are hepatic encephalopathy (confusion and coma) and bleeding from esophageal varices. Cirrhosis is generally irreversible once it occurs, and treatment generally focuses on preventing progression and complications. In advanced stages of cirrhosis the only option is a liver transplant.
The word “cirrhosis” derives from Greek kirrhos, meaning “tawny” (the orange-yellow colour of the diseased liver). While the clinical entity was known before, it was René Laennec who gave it the name “cirrhosis” in his 1819 work in which read more [...]
Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to the liver characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. The name is from ancient Greek hepar (ηπαρ) or hepato– (ηπατο-), meaning liver, and suffix -itis, meaning “inflammation” (c. 1727). The condition can be self-limiting, healing on its own, or can progress to scarring of the liver. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer. A group of viruses known as the hepatitis viruses cause most cases of liver damage worldwide. Hepatitis can also be due to toxins (notably alcohol), other infections or from autoimmune process. It may run a subclinical course when the affected person may not feel ill. The patient becomes unwell and symptomatic when the disease impairs liver functions that include, among other things, removal of harmful substances, regulation of blood composition, and production of bile to help digestion.
Causes of Hepatitis
Viral Hepatitis: Hepatitis A through E (more than 95% of viral cause), Herpes simplex, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr, yellow fever virus, adenoviruses.
Non viral infection: toxoplasma, read more [...]
An anal fistula is an abnormal connection between the epithelialised surface of the anal canal and (usually) the perianal skin.
Anal fistulae originate from the anal glands, which are located between the two layers of the anal sphincters and which drain into the anal canal. If the outlet of these glands becomes blocked, an abscess can form which can eventually point to the skin surface. The tract formed by this process is the fistula.
Abscesses can recur if the fistula seals over, allowing the accumulation of pus. It then points to the surface again, and the process repeats.
Anal fistulas per se do not generally harm and they often do not hurt, but they can be irritating because of the pus-drain (and, it is not unknown for formed stools to be passed through the fistula); additionally, recurrent abscesses may lead to significant short term morbidity from pain, and create a nidus for systemic spread of infection.
Surgery is considered essential in the decompression of acute abscesses; repair of the fistula itself is considered an elective procedure which many patients elect to undertake due to the discomfort and inconvenience associated with a draining tract.
Symptoms of read more [...]
An anal fissure is an unnatural crack or tear in the anus skin. As a fissure, these tiny tears may show as bright red rectal bleeding and cause severe periodic pain after defecation. The tear usually extends from the anal opening and located posteriorly in the midline. This location is probably because of the relatively unsupported nature of the anal wall in that location.
Causes of Anal fissure
Most anal fissures are caused by stretching of the anal mucosa beyond its capability. Many acute anal fissures will heal spontaneously. Some fissures become chronic and will not heal. The most common cause for this is spasm of the internal anal sphincter muscle. This spasm causes poor blood flow to the anal mucosa, hence producing an ulcer which does not heal since it is deprived of normal blood supply.
Anal fissures are common in women after childbirth, excessive anal intercourse, after difficult bowel movements and in infants following constipation.
Prevention for Anal fissure
In infants under one year old, frequent nappy/diaper change can prevent anal fissure. For adults, the following can help prevent fissure:
Treating constipation by eating food rich in dietary read more [...]
You have come to Homeopathy and I am sure you shall get perfect remedy with Homeopathy as it treats the whole body and not a particular disease.
Please answer the questions seriously.
1. Personal Details
Age & Date of birth:
Marital Status & No. of Children (if any):
Height, Weight & Physical Description:
Are you working and if so what do you do?:
2. Reason for consultancy:
I would like to begin with you telling me in your own words what has brought you here today. Please be as general or specific as you wish. Expand these spaces with as much information as you can.
If you prefer, you may answer the questions that follow and come back to this question later. The questions are designed to get what I need to understand about you.
3. Current Symptoms:
Please try and describe all the current symptoms in your own words including if possible, the cause. To help you with your response, imagine that you are sitting in front of me and I ask, 'So what brings you here today?'
When did the symptoms begin? Can you suggest some factors that helped create these symptoms?
If read more [...]
The primary characteristic underlying the Natrum mur. pathology is introversion arising out of a feeling of great vulnerability to emotional injury. Natrum mur. patients are emotionally very sensitive; they experience the emotional pain of others, and feel that any form of rejection, ridicule, humiliation or grief would be personally intolerable. Consequently, they create a wall of invulnerability, become enclosed in their own worlds, and prefer to maintain control over their circumstances. They avoid being hurt at all costs.
People susceptible to developing the Natrum mur. type of pathology are emotionally sensitive and vulnerable, but quite clear and strong on mental and physical levels. Mentally, they have a high degree of objectivity and awareness, as well as a great sense of responsibility. For this reason, they are likely to be the sympathetic ear to which others turn when distressed. The emotional sensitivity and the sense of responsibility readily lead such people into fields of counseling, psychotherapy, the ministry etc. While listening sympathetically to someone else’s suffering, such people maintain their objectivity and appear to be very strong. They internally absorb read more [...]
Homeopathy is a form of medicine which views and treats the body as a whole entity and helps it heal itself. It can be used for acute or chronic illnesses. The treatment is based on the principle that substances which are poisonous in large doses can be very beneficial in small doses. Homeopathy uses animal, vegetable and mineral preparations to cure a person's illness and prevent them from recurring. Millions of people in Britain, Europe and America are treated homeopathically.
Homeopathy regards each patient individually; practitioners then develop a personal remedy or treatment plan strictly for that patient. Homeopathy relies upon a person's inherent powers of healing - the immune system - to develop a successful therapy.
There are significant differences between the concepts used in Western medicine and those of homeopathy. In conventional medicine, symptoms are seen as a manifestation of the disease. Drugs are given to kill the bacteria or to relieve the symptom of the condition. Homeopaths, on the other hand, see the symptoms as the body's attempt to heal itself. They regard the symptom as a positive sign that the body's defense mechanism read more [...]
اس دوا کا زیادہ تر اثر دموی اورصفراوی مزاج والے مریضوں پر ہوتا ہے۔
ایسے مریض بحالتِ صحت خوش مزاج اور ہنس مُکھ ہوا کرتے ہیں لیکن جب بیمار ہوں تو وہ تند مزاج ہو جاتے ہیں اور اکثر ہذیان میں مبتلا ہو جاتے ہیں۔ ان کو تشنج کا ڈر لگا رہتا ہے۔ ایسے مریض ہوا کے جھونکے سے ڈر جاتے ہیں اور کھلی ہوا میں بیٹھنے اور سر کے بال کٹوانے سے ان کو فوراً سردی لگ جاتی ہے۔
دردیں فوراً ہی تیز ہو جاتی ہیں اور پھر اسی تیزی سے معدوم بھی ہوجاتی ہیں یعنی دردیں تھوڑی دیر رہا کرتی ہیں۔
چہرہ سرخ، آنکھیں سرخ، آنکھیں ٹکٹکی باندھے ہوئے اور پُتلیاں پھیلی ہوئی ہوتی ہیں۔ سر کی جانب خون پہچانے والی شریان کیروٹڈ آرٹریر (Carotid Arteries) خوب بھر کر چلتی ہے اور خوب تڑپتی ہے۔ لعاب دار جھلیاں read more [...]