Addison’s disease (also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces insufficient amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). It may develop in children as well as adults, and may occur as the result of a large number of underlying causes. The condition is named after Dr Thomas Addison, the British physician who first described the condition in his 1855 publication On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules. The adjective “Addisonian” is used for features of the condition, as well as patients with [...]
Acromegaly (from Greek akros “extreme” or “extremities” and megalos “large” – extremities enlargement) is a syndrome that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH) after epiphyseal plate closure. A number of disorders may be affecting the pituitary to create this circumstance, although most commonly it involves a GH producing tumor derived from a distinct type of cells (somatotrophs) and called pituitary adenoma. Acromegaly most commonly affects adults in middle age, and can result in severe disfigurement, serious complicating conditions, and premature death if unchecked. Because of its insidious pathogenesis and slow progression, the disease is hard to [...]
Hypothyroidism is the disease state in humans and animals caused by insufficient production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Cretinism is a form of hypothyroidism found in infants.Causes of Hypothyroidism About three percent of the general population is hypothyroid. Factors such as iodine deficiency or exposure to Iodine-131 (I-131) can increase that risk. There are a number of causes for overt hypothyroidism. Historically, and still in many developing countries, iodine deficiency is the most common cause of hypothyroidism worldwide. In iodine-replete individuals, hypothyroidism is mostly caused by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, or by a lack of the thyroid gland or a [...]
Graves’ disease is a thyroid disorder characterized by goitre, exophthalmos, and hyperthyroidism. It is caused by an antibody-mediated auto-immune reaction as to form anti-TSH-Receptor antibody. However, the trigger for this reaction is still unknown. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the world, and the most common cause of general thyroid enlargement in developed countries. In some parts of Europe the term Basedow’s disease or Graves-Basedow disease is preferred to Graves’ disease. It was also historically referred to as exophthalmic goiter. History Graves’ disease owes its name to the Irish doctor Mathew Graves , who described a case [...]
A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below the Adam’s apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. Classification of Goitre They are classified in different ways: A “diffuse goiter” is a goiter that has spread through all of the thyroid (and can be a “simple goitre”, or a “multinodular goitre”). “Toxic goitre” refers to goitre with hyperthyroidism. These most commonly due to Graves’ disease, but can be caused by inflammation or a multinodular goitre. “Nontoxic goitre” (associated with normal or low thyroid levels) refers to all [...]
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced. It denotes inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. DI is caused by a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, due to the destruction of the back or “posterior” part of the pituitary gland where vasopressin is normally released from, or by an insensitivity of the kidneys to that hormone. It can also be induced iatrogenically by various drugs. Signs and symptoms of Diabetes insipidus Excessive urination and extreme thirst (especially for [...]
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