Sepsis is a serious medical condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (called a systemic inflammatory response syndrome or SIRS) caused by infection. The body may develop this inflammatory response to microbes in the blood. The related layman’s term is blood poisoning.
Sepsis is usually treated in the intensive care unit with intravenous fluids and antibiotics. If fluid replacement is insufficient to maintain blood pressure, specific vasopressor drugs can be used. Artificial ventilation and dialysis may be needed to support the function of the lungs and kidneys, respectively. To guide therapy, a central venous catheter and an arterial catheter may be placed. Sepsis patients require preventive measures for deep vein thrombosis, stress ulcers and pressure ulcers, unless other conditions prevent this. Some patients might benefit from tight control of blood sugar levels with insulin (targeting stress hyperglycemia), low-dose corticosteroids or activated drotrecogin alfa (recombinant protein C).
Severe sepsis occurs when sepsis leads to organ dysfunction, low blood pressure (hypotension) or insufficient blood flow (hypoperfusion) to one or more organs (causing, read more [...]
Anemia (AmE) or anæmia/anaemia (BrE) (from the Ancient Greek anaîmia, meaning “without blood”) is defined as a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of hemoglobin, a molecule found inside red blood cells (RBCs). Since hemoglobin normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences. Anemia is caused by the lack of iron in the body as well.
The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood cell production (ineffective hematopoiesis).
Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood. There are several kinds of anemia, produced by a variety of underlying causes. Anemia can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few.
There are two major approaches of classifying anemias, the “kinetic” approach which involves evaluating production, destruction read more [...]
Agranulocytosis is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia particularly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood. The meaning of the term can be worked out from the etymology with the prefix ‘a’ denoting a reduction in the number of granulocytes in the blood stream .
Concentrations of granulocytes (a class that includes neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils) can often drop to below 500 cells/mm³ of blood), less than a sixth of the reference value of 3-10 x 103 cells/mm³.
Signs and symptoms of Agranulocytosis
Agranulocytosis may be asymptomatic, but may clinically present with sudden fever, rigors and sore throat. Infection of any organ may be rapidly progressive (e.g. pneumonia, urinary tract infection). Septicemia may also progress rapidly.
A large number of drugs have been associated with agranulocytosis, including antiepileptics, antithyroid drugs (carbimazole and methimazole), metamizole, antibiotics (penicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole), cytotoxic drugs, gold, NSAIDs (indomethacin, naproxen, phenylbutazone), the antidepressant mirtazapine, and some antipsychotics (the atypical antipsychotic clozapine). read more [...]
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the condition of having a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) of no known cause (idiopathic). As most causes appear to be related to antibodies against platelets, it is also known as immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Although most cases are asymptomatic, very low platelet counts can lead to a bleeding diathesis and purpura.
The incidence of ITP is 50–100 new cases per million per year, with children accounting for half of that amount.
More than 70% of the cases in children end up in remission within 6 months whether treated or not. Moreover, a third of the remaining chronic cases remitted during the follow-up observation, and another third ended up with only mild thrombocytopenia (>50,000 platelets per μL). ITP is usually chronic in adults and the probability of durable remission is 20–40%. The male:female ratio in the adult group is 1:1.2–1.7 (for children it is 1:1) and the median age of adults at the diagnosis is 56–60.
Signs and symptoms of Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Usually, ITP patients suffer from bruising; petechiae, nosebleeds and bleeding gums may occur if the read more [...]
Hodgkin’s lymphoma, also known as Hodgkin’s disease, is a type of lymphoma first described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is characterized clinically by the orderly spread of disease from one lymph node group to another and by the development of systemic symptoms with advanced disease. Pathologically, the disease is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells (RS cells). Hodgkin’s lymphoma was one of the first cancers to be cured by radiation. Later it was one of the first to be cured by combination chemotherapy. The survival rate is generally around 90% when the disease is detected relatively early, making it one of the most curable forms of cancer. Later-stage cancers show a significantly worse prognosis . The Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy, Sixth Edition states that “the potential for cure should not lead clinicians and patients to lose sight of the fact that [Hodgkin’s lymphoma] is a malignancy and that approximately 20% to 25% of patients die of the disease.” Nevertheless, recent trials are showing much higher 5-year survival rates than have previously been seen, often on the order of 98% for many patients. 
Unlike read more [...]
Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκ?ς, “white”; aima α?μα, “blood”) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). Leukemia is a broad term covering a spectrum of diseases. In turn, it is part of the even broader group of diseases called hematological neoplasms.
Classification of Leukemia
Leukemia is clinically and pathologically subdivided into several large groups. The first division is between its acute and chronic forms:
Acute leukemia is characterized by the rapid increase of immature blood cells. This crowding makes the bone marrow unable to produce healthy blood cells. Acute forms of leukemia can occur in children and young adults. (In fact, it is a more common cause of death for children in the US than any other type of malignant disease). Immediate treatment is required in acute leukemias due to the rapid progression and accumulation of the malignant cells, which then spill over into the bloodstream and spread to other organs of the body. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is uncommon, although the disease can read more [...]