Kidney stones, also called renal calculi, are solid concretions (crystal aggregations) of dissolved minerals in urine; calculi typically form inside the kidneys or bladder. The terms nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis refer to the presence of calculi in the kidneys and urinary tract, respectively.
The kidneys are a pair of organs that are primarily responsible for filtering metabolites and minerals from the circulatory system. These secretions are then passed to the bladder and out of the body as urine. Some of the substances found in urine are able to crystalize, and in a concentrated form these chemicals can precipitate into a solid deposit attached to the kidney walls. These crystals can grow through a process of accretion to form a kidney stone. In medical terminology these deposits are known as renal calculi (Latin renal, “kidney” and calculi, “pebbles”).
Renal calculi can vary in size from as small as grains of sand to as large as a golf ball. Kidney stones typically leave the body by passage in the urine stream, and many stones are formed and passed without causing symptoms. If stones grow to sufficient size before passage—on the order of at least read more [...]
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years through five stages. Each stage is a progression through an abnormally low and deteriorating glomerular filtration rate, which is usually determined indirectly by the creatinine level in blood serum.
Stage 1 CKD is mildly diminished renal function, with few overt symptoms.
Stage 5 CKD is a severe illness and requires some form of renal replacement therapy (dialysis or renal transplant). Stage 5 CKD is also called end-stage renal disease (ESRD), chronic kidney failure (CKF) or chronic renal failure (CRF).
Signs and symptoms of Chronic kidney disease
Initially it is without specific symptoms and can only be detected as an increase in serum creatinine or protein in the urine. As the kidney function decreases:
blood pressure is increased due to fluid overload and production of vasoactive hormones, increasing one’s risk of developing hypertension and/or suffering from congestive heart failure
Urea accumulates, leading to azotemia and ultimately uremia (symptoms ranging from lethargy to pericarditis and encephalopathy). Urea is read more [...]
Nephrotic syndrome is a nonspecific disorder in which the kidneys are damaged, to leak large amounts of protein (at least 3.5 grams per day per 1.73m2 body surface area) from the blood into the urine.
It is characterised by proteinuria (>3.5g/day), hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia and edema. A few other characteristics are:
The most common sign is excess fluid in the body. This may take several forms:
Puffiness around the eyes, characteristically in the morning.
Edema over the legs which is pitting (i.e. leaves a little pit when the fluid is pressed out, which resolves over a few seconds).
Fluid in the pleural cavity causing pleural effusion.
Fluid in the peritoneal cavity causing ascites.
Some patients may notice foamy urine, due to a lowering of the surface tension by the severe proteinuria. Actual urinary complaints such as hematuria or oliguria are uncommon, and are seen commonly in nephritic syndrome.
May have features of the underlying cause, such as the rash associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, or the neuropathy associated with diabetes.
Examination should also exclude other causes of gross edema—especially read more [...]