The autism spectrum, also called autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or autism spectrum conditions (ASC), with the word autistic sometimes replacing autism, is a spectrum of psychological conditions characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, as well as severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. A 2005 review estimated a prevalence of 6.0–6.5 per 1,000 for ASD. Of the various forms of ASD, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) was the vast majority, autism was at least 1.3 per 1,000, and Asperger syndrome was about 0.3 per 1,000; the atypical forms childhood disintegrative disorder and Rett syndrome were much rarer.
Classification of Autism spectrum
The three main forms of ASD are autism, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-NOS. Autism forms the core of the autism spectrum disorders. Asperger syndrome is closest to autism in signs and likely causes; unlike autism, Asperger’s has no significant delay in language development. Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is diagnosed when the criteria are not met for a more specific disorder. Some sources also include read more [...]
In pathology, an atheroma (plural: atheromata) is an accumulation and swelling (-oma) in artery walls that is made up of cells (mostly macrophage cells), or cell debris, that contain lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids), calcium and a variable amount of fibrous connective tissue. In the context of heart or artery matters, atheromata are commonly referred to as atheromatous plaques. It is an unhealthy condition, but is found in most humans.
These anatomic lesions usually begin in some children younger than age 1 year and all children older than age 10 regardless of geography, race, sex or environment. Veins do not develop atheromata, unless surgically moved to function as an artery, as in bypass surgery. The accumulation (swelling) is always between the endothelium lining and the smooth muscle wall central region (media) of the arterial tube, see IMT. While the early stages, based on gross appearance, have traditionally been termed fatty streaks by pathologists, they are not composed of fat cells, i.e. adipose cells, but of accumulations of white blood cells, especially macrophages that have taken up oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). After they accumulate large amounts of cytoplasmic read more [...]
Sepsis is a serious medical condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (called a systemic inflammatory response syndrome or SIRS) caused by infection. The body may develop this inflammatory response to microbes in the blood. The related layman’s term is blood poisoning.
Sepsis is usually treated in the intensive care unit with intravenous fluids and antibiotics. If fluid replacement is insufficient to maintain blood pressure, specific vasopressor drugs can be used. Artificial ventilation and dialysis may be needed to support the function of the lungs and kidneys, respectively. To guide therapy, a central venous catheter and an arterial catheter may be placed. Sepsis patients require preventive measures for deep vein thrombosis, stress ulcers and pressure ulcers, unless other conditions prevent this. Some patients might benefit from tight control of blood sugar levels with insulin (targeting stress hyperglycemia), low-dose corticosteroids or activated drotrecogin alfa (recombinant protein C).
Severe sepsis occurs when sepsis leads to organ dysfunction, low blood pressure (hypotension) or insufficient blood flow (hypoperfusion) to one or more organs (causing, read more [...]
Arteritis (not to be confused with arthritis) is inflammation of the walls of arteries, usually as a result of infection or auto-immune response.
Types of Arteritis
Temporal arteritis, also called giant cell arteritis, is specifically arteritis of the vessels supplying the head, eyes and optic nerves, particularly the temporal artery.
Takayasu’s arteritis affects the aorta and its branches.
Polyarteritis nodosa affects the medium-sized arteries, especially those of renal, coronary, hepatic and skeletal muscle systems.
Arteritis may be partially caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.
Homeopathy Treatment for Arteritis
Keywords: homeopathy, homeopathic, treatment, cure, remedy, remedies, medicine
Homeopathy treats the person as a whole. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. The homeopathic medicines are selected after a full individualizing examination and case-analysis, which includes the medical history of the patient, physical and mental constitution, family history, presenting symptoms, underlying pathology, possible causative factors etc. A miasmatic tendency (predisposition/susceptibility) read more [...]
Anemia (AmE) or anæmia/anaemia (BrE) (from the Ancient Greek anaîmia, meaning “without blood”) is defined as a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of hemoglobin, a molecule found inside red blood cells (RBCs). Since hemoglobin normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences. Anemia is caused by the lack of iron in the body as well.
The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood cell production (ineffective hematopoiesis).
Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood. There are several kinds of anemia, produced by a variety of underlying causes. Anemia can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few.
There are two major approaches of classifying anemias, the “kinetic” approach which involves evaluating production, destruction read more [...]
Adenoids (or pharyngeal tonsils, or nasopharyngeal tonsils) are a mass of lymphoid tissue situated at the very back of the nose, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the mouth.
Normally, in children, they make a soft mound in the roof and posterior wall of the nasopharynx, just above and behind the uvula.
Function of Adenoids
Adenoids are part of the immune system. Like all lymph tissue, they trap infectious agents like viruses and bacteria, and they produce antibodies.
Since the adenoids are located at the back of the nasal airway, they provide defense against inhaled substances.
This function decreases with age as the adenoids shrink. Because adenoids do ordinarily shrink by late childhood, the problems caused by enlarged adenoids rarely occur in adults.
It is important to remember that even though the pharyngeal tonsil is usually referred to in the plural sense, i.e. adenoids, as in this article, in reality there is only one adenoid tonsil.
Enlarged adenoids, or adenoid hypertrophy, can become nearly the size of a ping pong ball and completely block airflow through the nasal passages.
Even if enlarged adenoids are not substantial read more [...]
A chronic systemic disease characterised by inflammatory changes in joints & related structures that results in crippling deformities. Diseases primarily affecting the synovium & adjacent tissues.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks the joints producing a inflammatory synovitis that often progresses to destruction of the articular cartilage and ankylosis of the joints. Rheumatoid arthritis can also produce diffuse inflammation in the lungs, pericardium, pleura, and sclera, and also nodular lesions, most common in subcutaneous tissue under the skin. Although the cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, autoimmunity plays a pivotal role in its chronicity and progression.
Cause of Rheumatoid Arthritis:
– Exact cause is not known.
– Evidence points to autoimmune etiology.
– Genetic predisposition common.
– Precipitating factors:
• Physical or emotional stress.
• read more [...]
Arteriosclerosis refers to a hardening of medium and large arteries. The most common form of arteriosclerosis is atherosclerosis.
The following terms are similar, yet distinct, in both spelling and meaning, and can be easily confused: arteriosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis is a general term describing any hardening (and loss of elasticity) of medium or large arteries (from the Greek Arterio, meaning artery, and sclerosis, meaning hardening), arteriolosclerosis is any hardening (and loss of elasticity) of arterioles (small arteries), atherosclerosis is a hardening of an artery specifically due to an atheromatous plaque. Therefore, atherosclerosis is a form of arteriosclerosis.
Types of Arteriosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is the most common form of arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is characterized by a thickening of the intima with plaques that can contain lipid-laden macrophages (“foam cells”). The plaques contain free lipid (cholesterol, etc.) and are prone to calcification and ulceration.
Arteriosclerosis obliterans is typically seen in medium and large arteries of the lower extremity. Characterized by fibrosis of read more [...]
Agranulocytosis is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia particularly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood. The meaning of the term can be worked out from the etymology with the prefix ‘a’ denoting a reduction in the number of granulocytes in the blood stream .
Concentrations of granulocytes (a class that includes neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils) can often drop to below 500 cells/mm³ of blood), less than a sixth of the reference value of 3-10 x 103 cells/mm³.
Signs and symptoms of Agranulocytosis
Agranulocytosis may be asymptomatic, but may clinically present with sudden fever, rigors and sore throat. Infection of any organ may be rapidly progressive (e.g. pneumonia, urinary tract infection). Septicemia may also progress rapidly.
A large number of drugs have been associated with agranulocytosis, including antiepileptics, antithyroid drugs (carbimazole and methimazole), metamizole, antibiotics (penicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole), cytotoxic drugs, gold, NSAIDs (indomethacin, naproxen, phenylbutazone), the antidepressant mirtazapine, and some antipsychotics (the atypical antipsychotic clozapine). read more [...]
Chronic, inflammatory, systemic disease which may cause joint or connective tissue damage & visceral lesions throughout the body characterised by fever, rash, hepato-spleenomegaly & arthritis in children.
It is a persistent inflammatory arthritis (> 6 weeks) that begins before age 16 for which no specific cause can be found.
ETIOLOGY of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Exact cause is unknown.
• Evidence points to autoimmune aetiology.
• Associated with physical or emotional stress.
• Age: Under 16 years of age.
• Sex: Common in girls.
CLINICAL FEATURES of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Onset: acute or insidious.
• Swelling & pain in joints.
• Poor appetite.
• Loss of weight.
• Child refuses to walk without being able to explain why.
• Fever: remittent.
• Rash on trunk, limbs as patches of erythema.
• Affected joints hot, tender & swollen.
• Effusion of joint.
• Limitation of joint movement.
INVESTIGATIONS for Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Hb%: low.
• TLC: 20,000-50,000/cu.mm.
• read more [...]